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The problem of induction is, roughly speaking, the problem of finding a way to prove that certain empirical generalizations which are derived from past experience will hold good also in the future.
There are only two ways of approaching this problem on the assumption that it is a genuine problem, and it is easy to see that neither of them can lead to its solution. The criterion which we use to test the genuineness of apparent statements of fact is the criterion of verifiability. We say that a sentence is factually significant to any given person, if, and only if, he knows how to verify the proposition which it purports to express — that is, if he knows what observations would lead him, under certain conditions, to accept positkvismo proposition as being true, or reject it as being logivo.
Frases de Alfred Jules Ayer
The principles of logic and mathematics are true simply because we never allow them to be anything else. And the reason for this is that we cannot abandon them without contradicting ourselves, without sinning against the rules which govern the use of language, and so making our utterances self-stultifying. In other words, the truths of logic and mathematics are analytic propositions or tautologies.
To make our position clearer, we may formulate it in another way. Let us call a proposition which records an actual or possible observation an experiential proposition.
Then we may say that it is the mark of a genuine factual proposition, not that it should be equivalent to an experiential proposition, or any finite number of experiential propositions, but simply that some experiential propositions can be deduced from it in conjunction with certain other premises without being deducible from those other premises alone. I am using the word “perceive”.
I am using it here in such a way that to say of an object that it is perceived does not entail saying that it exists in ayr sense at all. And this is a perfectly correct and familiar usage of the word. If there is thought to be a difficulty here, it is perhaps because there is also a correct and familiar usage of the word “perceive”, in which to say of an object that it is perceived does carry the implication that it exists.
The Foundations of Empirical Knowledge The traditional disputes of philosophers are, for the most part, as unwarranted as they are unfruitful.
Frases de Alfred Jules Ayer (19 citações) | Citações e frases famosas
The surest way to end them is to establish beyond question what should be the purpose and method of a philosophical enquiry. And this is by no means so difficult a ayre as the history of philosophy would lead one to suppose.
For if positivizmo are any questions which science leaves it to philosophy to answer, a straightforward process of elimination must lead to their discovery. A Life by Ben Rogers, p. A Lifep.
Jeremy George, in [http: Frases de Alfred Jules Ayer. As Hume conclusively showed, no one event intrinsically points to any other. We infer the existence of events which we are not actually observing, with the help of general principle.
But these principles must be obtained inductively. By mere deduction from what is immediately given we cannot advance a single step beyond.
And, consequently, any attempt to base a deductive system on propositions which describe what is immediately given is bound to be a failure. I’m afraid I’m going to have to revise all my various books and opinions.
It is as if I had written “Stealing money!! Henri Matisse 3 – Marshall McLuhan 9 – Maksim Litvinov 1 – Autores parecidos Ludwig Wittgenstein John Stuart Ater Willard Van Orman Quine 6.